A PROJECT REPORT ON RAINWATER HARVESTING AT LINGAYA'S UNIVERSITY in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree Of BACHELOR OF. PDF | These TechNotes are intended to provide general information for the consideration of design strategies. Rainwater harvesting is an excellent means of Rainwater harvesting projects contribute to. P a g e | 7. PDF | Design of Rainwater harvesting system for Lingayas university Campus, faridabad.
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of water and if we can harvest rain water, the scarcity of water can by IRICEN to propagate the concept of rain water harvesting .. low cost housing projects). Assessment of Best Practises and Experience in Water Harvesting. Rainwater .. micro catchment. 1 Pilot Project On Water Harvesting In The IGAD Region, P modern benefit, harvesting rainwater for non-drinking water uses is gaining more elaborate rainwater harvesting storage systems available to capture rooftop .
For low-tech systems, many low-tech methods are used to capture rainwater: Before a rainwater harvesting system is built, use of digital tools is useful.
For instance, to detect if a region has a high rainwater harvesting potential, rainwater-harvesting GIS maps can be made using an online interactive tool , or, to estimate how much water is needed to fulfill a community's water needs, the Rain is Gain tool helps. Tools like these can save time and money before a commitment to build a system is undertaken, in addition to making the project sustainable and long lasting.
Missions to six Caribbean countries have shown that the capture and storage of rainwater runoff for later use is able to significantly reduce the risk of losing some or all of the year's harvest because of soil or water scarcity.
In addition, the risks associated with flooding and soil erosion during high rainfall seasons would decrease. Small farmers, especially those farming on hillsides, could benefit the most from rainwater harvesting because they are able to capture runoff and decrease the effects of soil erosion.
Frankfurt Airport has the biggest rainwater harvesting system in Germany. The system helps save approximately 1 million cubic metres of water per year. The cost of the system was 1. The system collects water from roofs of the new terminal which has an area of 26, square metres.
The water is collected in the basement of the airport in six tanks with a storage capacity of cubic metres. The water is mainly used for toilet flushing, watering plants and cleaning the air conditioning system.
Rainwater harvesting was adopted at The Velodrome — The London Olympic Park — in order to increase the sustainability of the facility. Despite this, it was deemed that rainwater harvesting was a less efficient use of financial resources to increase sustainability than the park's blackwater recycling program. Rainwater may need to be analyzed properly, and used in a way appropriate to its safety. In the Gansu province for example, solar water disinfection is used by boiling harvested rainwater in parabolic solar cookers before being used for drinking.
While rainwater itself is a clean source of water, often better than groundwater or water from rivers or lakes,  the process of collection and storage often leaves the water polluted and non-potable. Rainwater harvested from roofs can contain human, animal and bird feces , mosses and lichens , windblown dust, particulates from urban pollution, pesticides, and inorganic ions from the sea Ca , Mg , Na , K , Cl , SO 4 , and dissolved gases CO 2 , NO x , SO x.
High levels of pesticide have been found in rainwater in Europe with the highest concentrations occurring in the first rain immediately after a dry spell;  the concentration of these and other contaminants are reduced significantly by diverting the initial flow of run-off water to waste.
Improved water quality can also be obtained by using a floating draw-off mechanism rather than from the base of the tank and by using a series of tanks, withdraw from the last in series. Prefiltration is a common practice used in the industry to keep the system healthy and ensure that the water entering the tank is free of large sediments. Conceptually, a water supply system should match the quality of water with the end use. However, in most of the developed world, high-quality potable water is used for all end uses.
This approach wastes money and energy and imposes unnecessary impacts to the environment. Supplying rainwater that has gone through preliminary filtration measures for nonpotable water uses, such as toilet flushing, irrigation and laundry, may be a significant part of a sustainable water management strategy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Accumulation of rainwater for reuse. Main article: Rainwater harvesting in Canada. Rainwater harvesting in the United Kingdom. Sustainable development portal Ecology portal. Retrieved Legacies and Lessons". Water - Open Access Journal. Tamil Nadu State Government , India. Retrieved 23 January The Hindu.
Arun; Sankannavar, Ravi; Rao, K. Kesava 13 June Centre for Science and Environment. Greater Wellington Regional Council. Archived from the original on 14 April Retrieved 21 March CS1 maint: South African Water Research Commission.
Retrieved 27 August Sustainable techniques and practices for water harvesting and conservation and their effective application in resource-poor agricultural production through participatory adaptive research: Gezina [South Africa]: Water Research Commission. Hydrogeology Journal.
BBC News. Colorado water law, notices. Colorado Division of Water Resources. Pilot Project Program. January 28, The New York Times. Precipitation, every last drop or flake, was assigned ownership from the moment it fell in many Western states, making scofflaws of people who scooped rainfall from their own gutters.
In some instances, the rights to that water were assigned a century or more ago. Act relating to rainwater harvesting and other water conservation initiatives. Texas Legislature Online. Retrieved 8 February Retrieved 7 February Retrieved 13 November Archived from the original on 17 December Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 11 January CNN Money.
Retrieved 30 November Archived from the original on Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 5 December Science of the Total Environment. A lifecycle-based model for use of harvested rainwater and composting toilets in buildings". Journal of Environmental Management. Journal of Cleaner Production. Rainwater Harvesting for Agriculture and Water Supply.
Water for Texas. Olympic Delivery Authority. People's Daily Online. Hydration Anywhere. Retrieved 3 August New Scientist.
Retrieved 10 July Rainwater harvesting at Wikipedia's sister projects. Retrieved from " https: Canteen 4. Workshop 5. Science Block 6. Computing Block 7. Block 9. The open area of main playground will serve as the location for the storage Recharge Well for water collected in buildings mentioned above. The regular parts of a water collecting framework are:- 1. Catchments: The surface which straightforwardly gets the precipitation and gives water to the framework is called catchment zone.
It can be a cleared region like a patio or yard of a building, or an unpaved zone like a garden or open ground. A rooftop made of fortified bond concrete RCC , excited iron or layered sheets can likewise be utilized for water gathering.
Coarse Mesh: It keeps the section of flotsam and jetsam, gave in the rooftop. Drains: Channels which encompasses edge of a slanting rooftop to gather and transport water to the capacity tank.
Canals can be semi-round or rectangular and for the most part made locally from plain aroused iron sheet. Drains should be upheld so they don't hang or tumble off when stacked with water. The manner by which canals are settled basically relies upon the development of the house, for the most part iron or timber sections are settled into the dividers.
Channels: Conduits are pipelines or channels that convey water from the catchment or housetop zone to the collecting framework. Generally accessible courses are comprised of material like polyvinyl chloride PVC or electrifies press GI. Components of Rainwater Harvesting system 5.
To begin with flushing: A first flush gadget is a valve which guarantees flushing out of first spell of rain far from the capacity tank that conveys a moderately bigger measure of contaminations from the air and catchment surface. Channels: The channel is utilized to expel suspended poisons from water gathered from housetop water.
The Various sorts of channels for the most part utilized for business design are Charcoal water channel, Sand channels, Horizontal roughing channel and moderate sand channel.
Storeroom: There are different alternatives accessible for the development of these tanks regarding the shape, estimate, material of development and the situation of tank and they are:- Shape: Cylindrical, square and rectangular. Position of tank: Depending ashore space accessibility these tanks could be built over the ground, somewhat underground or completely underground.
Some support measures like purification and cleaning are required to guarantee the nature of water put away in the holder. Revive structures: Rainwater Harvested can likewise be utilized for charging the groundwater aquifers through reasonable structures like burrowed wells, bore wells, energize trenches and energize pits.
Different energize structures are conceivable - some which advance the permeation of water through soil strata at shallower profundity e.
At numerous areas, existing structures like wells, pits and tanks can be adjusted as revive structures, killing the need to build any new structures. Storage of water on surface for sometime later. Revive to ground water. The capacity of rain water on surface is a customary procedures and structures utilized were underground tanks, lakes, check dams, weirs and so on.
Energize to ground water is another idea of rain water collecting and the structures for the most part utilized are :- 1. Pits :- Recharge pits are built for energizing the shallow aquifer. These are built 1 to 2 m, wide and to 3 m. Trenches:- These are built when the penetrable strata is accessible at shallow profundity.
Trench might be 0. These are refilled with channel. Dug wells:- Existing burrowed wells might be used as revive structure and water should go through channel media before putting into burrowed well. Water should go through channel media before redirecting it into hand pumps.
Recharge wells :- Recharge wells of to mm. Recharge Shafts :- For energizing the shallow aquifer which are situated beneath clayey surface, revive shafts of 0. Lateral shafts with bore wells :- For energizing the upper and additionally more profound aquifers sidelong shafts of 1. The sidelong shafts is inlayed with rocks, rock and coarse sand.
Spreading procedures :- When penetrable strata begins from top then this strategy is utilized. Strategies for manufactured revive in urban territories : 1. Water spreading 2. Recharge through pits, trenches, wells, shafts 3. Roof best gathering of water 4. Road best gathering of water Initiated energize from surface water bodies Components of Consideration 1.
The catchment zone and capacity limit of a framework are generally little. There is an awesome variety in climate. Amid a drawn out dry spell, the capacity tank may become scarce. Maintenance of water gathering frameworks, and the nature of gathered water, can be troublesome for clients.
Extensive improvement of water reaping frameworks may decrease the wage of open water frameworks. Rainwater use has not been perceived as an option of water supply framework by the general population segment. Governments regularly do exclude water use in their water administration arrangements, and residents don't request water usage in their groups.
Rainwater capacity tanks might be a risk to kids who play around it. Rainwater capacity tanks may consume up profitable room. Thus to increase the potential, benefits of this system and draw maximum advantages from it, we need to have large rooftop areas which will be going to act as catchment areas.
More the catchment areas more will be the surface runoff and thus more will be the amount of harvested water.
Therefore as much as possible, we have included and considered all the major buildings having large rooftop areas. Hence, study areas includes all the 9 block, 1 playground, 1 workshop. During three months of south west monsoon from last week of June to September, the moist air of oceanic penetrate into the district and causes high humidity, cloudiness and monsoon rainfall. The period from October to December constitutes post monsoon season.
The cold weather season prevails from January to the beginning of March and followed by the hot weather or summer season which prevails up to the last week of June. The normal annual rainfall in Faridabad district is about mm spread over 27 days. Catchment areas of the different hostels and Institutional departments are measured.
Before using the tape, tape was checked for any zero error and also length of the tape was also carefully checked for its accuracy. Those places which area not accessible to land on, are measured by using the ruler from tool box of ,Google Earth. Given below the table no. Main Building Komati 3. Girls hostel 4. Staff Quarters Computing Block Science Block Workshop Canteen Darcy, a French scientist enunciated in , a law governing the rate of flow i.
According to him, this discharge was directly proportional to head loss H and the area of cross-section A of the soil, and inversely proportional to the length of the soil sample L. Similarly, based on the above principle, water harvesting potential of the catchment area was calculated. The total amount of water that is received from rainfall over an area is called the rainwater legacy of that area.
And the amount that can be effectively harvested is called the water harvesting potential. Runoff coefficient accounts for losses due to spillage, leakage, infiltration, catchment surface wetting and evaporation, which will all contribute to reducing the amount of runoff.
Runoff coefficient varies from 0.
In present problem statement, runoff coefficient is equal to 1 as the rooftop area is totally impervious. Eco-Climatic condition i. G block 0. BLOCK Now we will design the discharge pipe for the maximum condition that can occur in the main building and then rest of the buildings will be provided with the same data of the discharge pipe.
Now as mentioned earlier the initial velocity of Rainwater entering in the R. We will provide Discharge pipes also of mm diameter. WE will provide P.
Time of Concentration. Maximum water to be stored at the longest rainfall with chocked filters. Time of Concentration It is a fundamental hydrology parameter and used to compute the peak discharge for catchments. The peak discharge is a function of the rainfall intensity of particular return period and duration.
Time of concentration is the longest time required for the a water to travel in catchments and reach to outlet point in our case, roof top and length of drain to recharge pit. The mathematical equation used for calculation of time of concentration requires inputs for the longest watercourse length in the watershed catchments area L , the average slope of that watercourse S.
The average value of slope will be different for different surfaces e. Roof, road, lawn, drain etc. Usually L and S can be obtained from architectural drawing of the building and if drawings are not available then by assessment.
The Tc is generally defined as the time required for a drop of water to travel from the most hydro- logically remote point in the sub-catchments to the point of collection A time of concentration value is essential to determine critical intensity of rainfall because maximum discharge will occur for rainfall intensity of duration equal to the time of concentration.
Schwab John Wiley. Main building 0. So the total time of concentration will be the submission of all the values of T C which comes out to be approximately 1. But we will design the Recharge Well 1. The possible dimensions of which can be of 10m in diameter d and 6 m in depth h. Maximum water to be stored at the longest rainfall with chocked filters This is the second criteria of filter design in which it is assumed that all the rain water is to be stored in the recharge well for sometime before it recharges the water tables below by assuming the fact that all the filters are chocked and water has to be stored for some while.
For this we first need to calculate the maximum duration of the rainfall. The calculation for the same are done below Maximum No. So the Recharge Well designed by us of capacity The inlet of the Recharge Well will Have to be kept deep down 1. These filter beds require minimum maintenance, except periodic scrapping of fine clay and silt deposited on the filter bed.
Silt deposited on the filter media should be cleaned regularly by removing the top deposited silt. Thickness of these layers varies from 0. Its diameter should vary depending on the area of the roof, 15 cm if roof top area is less than sq m and 20 cm if area is more. The filter is provided with reducer of 6. The filter is divided into three chambers by PVC screens so that filter material is not mixed up. The first chamber is filled up with gravel mm , middle chamber with pebbles mm and last chamber with bigger pebbles mm.
Pressure Filters These filters consist of the sand through which water is being injected with pressure. These types of filters are fitted with pumps to pressurize the water through filter chamber. Main disadvantage of these filters is that they require energy for operation and these filters need to be back washed periodically to remove the finer material so that the rate of filtration is maintained.
The major components are as follows: 1. P pipes 2. Discharge pipes 3. Recharge well cost. Fixer and cost of Joints. Excavation cost. Maintenance charges. So we first calculate the total amount of above work: 1. Total length of mm R. This also includes the provision of the gravity filter. P and discharge pipe with each other. Total no. Excavation cost will cover the total excavation we have done to layout the discharge pipe. As in this case of laying Discharge pipe we are laying in tapered fashion so we will have to take the slope consideration in mind before actually calculations.
As mentioned before we have taken a of 0.
Similarly the other excavation calculations can be done. A tabular representation of the same for every building has been one below: Building Name Length, slope Initial Final Width , w Total L depth, a depth, b m excavation m3 m m m Main Building m 0. The annual repair and maintenance involves this part of estimation.
Rural Water Supply Network. Retrieved